Probiotic human strain?
The specific characteristics are attributable to the strains and not necessarily the bacterial genera or Species. Different species of probiotics are reported as potential strains after the studies of different parameters to ensure the safety, potency and stability along with the beneficial characteristics for human health application and these human probiotic strain recognised with a specific code or accession no. Example Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 and Bifidobacterium infantis – 35624, these two are strain of Species Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium infantis respectively. Each strain is unique and will benefit different areas of the body. The specificity of these strains is essential because they may compete with each other and lose their effectiveness - this is why it is vital to research the companies and the specific strain(s) they are offering.
The weight of intestinal bacteria is approx. 1kg and nutritional factors including several vitamins B, vitamin K, folate, and short chain fatty acids are produced by these bacteria. Up to 10% of an individual’s daily energy needs can be derived from the by-products of bacterial fermentation. Gastrointestinal microbiota are also critical for normal immune system development. (Macpherson and Harris, 2004). Maximum bacterial concentration is existing in the gut which includes both good and bad bacteria and make up a person’s “microbiome. Research suggests that the microbiome changes throughout a person’s life based on their diet, lifestyle, and exposure to different environmental influences. Probiotics which includes only good and beneficial bacteria can help populate the gut with good bacteria which have many functions in the body and affect things such as weight, mood, and inflammation.
Do Probiotics strains actually improve Gut Health?
It is well known that probiotics are live beneficial bacteria or yeast that help keep the gut healthy by maintaining the balance of microbes. Probiotics are perhaps most widely known for their impact on gut health. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, their effects include enhanced digestion, increased absorption of some micronutrients, and reduced incidence and severity of diarrhea from various causes. But for a probiotic strain it is essential to survive in gastric acid and bile to reach the small intestine and colon where they exert their effects to support immune health and improve digestive system. Probiotic strains inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria and keep the gut free from infection. Probiotics are generally considered as safe for most people and may support a person’s gut health and relieve gastrointestinal issues.
Best probiotic Species for health include:
Most of the potential species or probiotic human strains are lies under the two common genera of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Shared benefits of these good bacteria include beneficial effects on the immune system, vaginal and urinary tract infections, dental cavities, and eczema in children. Lactobacillus is mostly found in the small intestine and vagina, and Bifidobacterium is mostly found in the large intestine or colon. Lactobacillus produces lactic acid and helps control the bad bacteria in our gut. It also helps with the body’s mineral absorption (Enrica, 2012). Whereas Bifidobacterium, supports the immune system by limiting the growth of bad bacteria in the intestine. Specific strains of this species have been associated with the protection of the walls of the intestine from bad bacteria and in helping break down proteins and carbohydrates like lactose. Some important species of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus are:
- Lactobacillus acidophilus: L.acidophilus balances potentially harmful bacteria that can grow in our gut due to illness or antibiotics. It breaks down lactose to lactic acid and could help relieve vaginal and immune conditions. Research suggests L. acidophilus helps balance gut flora and reduce symptoms associated with IBS (Irritable bowel Syndrome).
- Limosilactobacillus fermentum:: L. fermentum strengthens immune system and prevents gastrointestinal and upper respiratory infections.
- Lacticaseibacillus casei:L.casei can ease inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) – a common disorder that causes cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, and diarrhea or constipation. It is used to relieve diarrhea and can be found in yogurts, fermented milk, and certain cheeses also.
- Lacticaseibacillus paracasei:L.paracasei helps support inflammation, improve skin health and strengthen the compromised immune systems.
- Lactiplantibacillus plantarum: L.plantarum stimulates our digestive system, fights off disease-causing bacteria, and helps our body to produce vitamins. It helps eliminate bloating, cramps, and other digestive issues.
- Lactobacillus gasseri:L.gasseri not only helps keep the reproductive tract healthy but also produces Lactocillin - a natural antibiotic providing further protection against infection.
- Limosilactobacillus reuteri : L.reuteri supports heart health by balancing cholesterol levels. It also reduces ulcer-causing bacteria and supports female urinary tract and vaginal health. It is an acid and bile resistant probiotic in our small intestine. This probiotic specie, would promote and support women’s heart health. (Qinghui et al, 2018). L. reuteri has improved digestive health, enhanced immune health, and better oral health.
- Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. This is a common bacteria used in the production of yogurt. It supports good digestion, prevents diarrhea, and helps relieve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
- Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus. This is a bacterium that is naturally found in gut and helpful in relieving IBS symptoms, treating diarrhea, strengthening your gut health, and protecting against cavities. It would support the digestive and immune system.
- Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum. This bacterium can help prevent inflammation and provide some protection from colon cancer, intestinal infections, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and even depression. B. longum have been proven to support digestion and the immune system and also relieve constipation and stress on occasion. (Callaghan et al; 2016)
- Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis. This bacterium is commonly used to treat bowel problems, eczema, vaginal yeast infections, lactose intolerance, and urinary tract infections.
- Bifidobacterium bifidum. B.bifidum can help manage our digestive system, improve IBS, and boost immune system. This is the most common species that produces lactic and acetic acid in the gut. It suppresses gut inflammation and promotes a healthy digestive system.
- Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis.B.lactis helps prevent infection. It also produces vitamins and other important chemicals in the body. It may help to strengthen and seal our gut lining, which could benefit people with leaky guts. B.lactis also improves digestion, skin health, and reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). One important species of Yeast is also well studied and reported as probiotic with various health benefits.
- Saccharomyces boulardii : Saccharomyces boulardii has been effective in preventing and treating diarrhea that occurs when taking antibiotics or following infection. The yeast may also effectively treat irritable bowel syndrome ( IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but more research is needed to confirm this.
10 Best Probiotic Strains for Gut Health:
As the benefits of probiotic are strain specific, therefore various strains of probiotic are studied and reported by various scientist and researchers across the globe. These strains mainly lie in genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Saccharomyces. From several research reports, based on stability and beneficial characteristics, 10 best probiotic strains for Gut Health are:
- Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) : Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is one of the most widely used probiotic strain, can fight GI pathogens and has been shown to prevent diarrhea from various causes. A probiotic product Culturelle (Valio) contains L. rhamnosus GG which helps in AAD Prevention, Infectious Diarrhea Treatmen, Infectious Diarrhea Prevention, CDAD Prevention, IBS.
- Strains of Bifidobacterium lactis : Bifidobacterium lactis HN019: This strain has mainly been studied for benefits to the digestive system and provide relief from constipation (Dalziel et al., 2017). This strain has been found to support the intestinal barrier, reduce GI pathogens, and reduce the incidence of infectious diarrhea. It can also increase bowel movements in patients with constipation. An another strain Bifidobacterium lactis UABla-12 may improve abdominal pain and reduce the severity of other symptoms, like bloating, in adults with irritable bowel syndrome. (Martoni et al., 2020). A product Activia (Dannon) contains potential strain of Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 which might increase stool frequency and improve stool consistency, which can help improve constipation and promote bowel regularity (Dimidi et al., 2014).Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 may shorten colon transit time (Ibarra et al.,2018), which can promote regularity and alleviate constipation.
- Bifidobacterium longum BB536: Bifidobacterium longum BB536 promotes bacterial balance (Wong et al., 2019) and homeostasis in the gut, which supports the immune system and alleviates digestive issues.
- Strains of Lactobacillus fermentum : The strain Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 can help restore normal vaginal flora (Yeruva et al., 2017) and reduce the risk of bacterial and yeast vaginal infections.
- Strains of Lacticaseibacillus casei : L.casei BF1, BF2, and BF3 can inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus (Budden et al., 2017), two pathogenic bacteria well known for causing human infection and resulting health problems. A Probiotic product, Bio-K+ (Bio-K Plus International inc) contain the strain L. casei LBC80R which helps in AAD (Antibiotic associated diarrhea) and CDAD (Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea)Prevention. An another probiotic product Danactive (Dannon) contains L. casei DN-114001 which help in AAD Prevention, Infectious Diarrhea Prevention, CDAD Prevention.
- Strains of Limosilactobacillus reuteri : The strain L. reuteri DSM 17938 was found to reduce the duration of infectious diarrhea. A probiotic supplement with brand name BioGaia (Everidis Health Sciences) contain the strain L. reuteri SD2112 which is beneficial for infectious diarrhea treatment and irritable bowel syndrome.
- Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843: The strain L. plantarum DSM 9843 can improve gas and flatulence (Ducrotte et al.,2012) in people with irritable bowel syndrome.
- Strains of Bifidobacterium infantis: Strain B.infantis 35624, Strain B.infantis 35624, was evaluated and found significant reductions in pain, bloating, bowel movement difficulty and composite symptom score versus placebo and a lactobacillus species. (Mahony, et al., 2005). Reduction in pain and global relief of IBS symptoms were significantly greater in the B.infantis treated group compared to placebo (Whorwell et al., 2006). This strain supports healthy digestion and can help with occasional gas and bloating t’s a well-studied probiotic for gut health. A probiotic supplement with brand name Align (Proctor & Gamble), contain the strain B. infantis 35624 which is good for Irritable bowel syndrome. Other strain B. infantis CGMCC313-2, has been associated with minimized gastrointestinal distress, aids in the infant’s ability to digest breast milk, and increases good bacteria in the infant’s digestive system. (Wong et al., 2019). B. infantis strain EVC001 was found to reduce pathogenic bacteria and intestinal inflammation in breastfed infants.
- Strain of Saccharomyces boulardii : Specifically, the strain Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 has been shown to prevent gastroenteritis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. A probiotic product Florastor (Biocodex) contain yeast strain S.boulardii which helps in AAD Prevention, infectious diarrhea treatment, infectious diarrhea prevention, and CDAD prevention.
- Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus: L.acidophilus NCFM is a common strain and it’s been linked with a reduction in bloating in individuals with IBS. An another strain L. acidophilus DDS-1 can also improve abdominal pain (Martoni et al., 2020) and also reduce symptoms in bloating in adults with irritable bowel syndrome. A probiotic product, Bio-K+ (Bio-K plus International inc) contain the strain L. acidophilus CL1285 which helps in AAD and CDAD Prevention.
There are different probiotic strains are available in various probiotic products or supplements. The benefits of Probiotic are strain specific, so it is necessary to choose the correct strain for a particular or specific health condition. Also, Probiotic supplements have been vetted to ensure that they meet standard of quality and adhere to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on allowable health claims and labelling requirements, and are manufactured in facilities that adhere to Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs) established by the FDA. The information provided in this article was meant to give a better idea about the difference between species and strains and also of what human probiotic strains will work best in unique medical condition.
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- Mu, Qinghui et al (2018): Role of Lactobacillus reuteri in Human Health and Diseases.” Frontiers in microbiology. Vol.- 9, pp. 75.
- O'Callaghan, Amy, and Douwe van Sinderen (2016): Bifidobacteria and Their Role as Members of the Human Gut Microbiota.” Frontiers in microbiology . Vol.-7, pp. 925.
- Yeruva T., Rajkumar H., Donugama V. (2017) : Vaginal lactobacilli profile in pregnant women with normal & abnormal vaginal flora. Indian J Med Res. Vol.-146(4), pp.534-540.
- Dalziel J.E, Anderson R.C, Peters J.S, Lynch A.T, Spencer N.J, Dekker J., Roy N.C (2017): Promotility Action of the Probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 Extract Compared with Prucalopride in Isolated Rat Large Intestine. Front Neurosci. Vol.-26, pp.11:20.
- Martoni C.J, Srivastava S. and Leyer G.J. (2020): Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 and Bifidobacterium lactis UABla-12 Improve Abdominal Pain Severity and Symptomology in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. Vol.-12(2), pp. 363.
- Eirini Dimidi, Stephanos Christodoulides, Konstantinos C. Fragkos, S. Mark Scott, Kevin Whelan (2014): The effect of probiotics on functional constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol.-100 (4), pp.1075–1084.
- Ibarra A., Latreille-Barbier M., Donazzolo Y., Pelletier X., Ouwehand A.C (2018): Effects of 28-day Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 supplementation on colonic transit time and gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with functional constipation: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, and dose-ranging trial. Gut Microbes. Vol.-9(3), pp. 236-251.
- Chyn Boon Wong, Toshitaka Odamaki, Jin-zhong Xiao (2019): Beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BB536 on human health: Modulation of gut microbiome as the principal action. Journal of Functional Foods. Vol.-54,pp. 506-519.
- Budden, K., Gellatly, S., Wood, D. et al. (2017): Emerging pathogenic links between microbiota and the gut–lung axis. Nat Rev Microbiol. Vol.-15, pp.55–63.
- Ducrotte P., Sawant P., Jayanthi V. (2012): Clinical trial: Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (DSM 9843) improves symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. Vol.- 18(30), pp. 4012-4020.
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